Sent October 31, 2022, 6:30 amUpdated October 31, 2022 at 7:29 am
As winter approaches, energy consumption in France is about to increase. Lower temperatures lead to higher heat, shorter days, and more lighting. “Les Echos” provides daily updates on gas and electricity consumption and reserves, thanks to a series of graphs and indicators updated in real time.
Before looking at consumption, let’s take stock of energy supply. Gas is a major problem. What is the state of our reserves? Where is the gas stored? What about imports from Russia in the context of the war in Ukraine? Three graphs and two maps to get around this.
The graph below shows the evolution of gas reserves since the beginning of the year. The red curve indicates the state of our reserves in 2022 and the black one the average of these reserves in the period 2017-2021. The gray area indicates the minimum and maximum in this same period. Unsurprisingly, reserves decrease during the winter and spring and then increase with the summer. To date, the gas reserves are almost at their maximum capacity.
Since the outbreak of the war in Ukraine last February, our imports of Russian fuel have plummeted, regardless of fuel type. In the graph below, we see the collapse of imports of Russian gas, in red, but also of oil, in lighter red.
A great challenge lies in the transport of energy. This is why France and Europe can count on a solid network of gas pipelines that supplies them. Three poles of gas origin emerge, that of Algeria in southern Europe, Russia in the east and Norway in the north.
Faced with the decline in Russian gas imports, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is becoming a major problem. To receive and regasify it, Europe has around thirty LNG import terminals, four of which are located in France: two in Fos-sur-Mer, one in Dunkerque and one in Montoir-de-Bretagne.
Each of these four terminals communicates its occupancy rate in real time, visible in the graph below. The gray square indicates the total capacity of each terminal and the red square specifies the filling rate.
But gas is only one of the two main sources of energy. What about electricity? How is it produced? How many do we produce? Two graphs and a map to take stock of the status of our electricity supply, updated in real time.
The graph below shows the evolution of electricity production in France since the beginning of 2022, represented by the red curve on the graph. The black curve indicates the average over the period 2017-2021 and the gray area shows the minimum and maximum over the same period. In 2022, our production is currently much lower than the average of recent years.
Our electricity is produced from a mix of energy sources: nuclear, gas and renewable energy. The graph below shows the composition of this energy mix from yesterday.
In the previous graph, we see the importance of nuclear energy in our electricity generation. France relies on a substantial nuclear fleet, one of the largest in the world, shown in the map below. But the French reactor fleet was hit this year by a corrosion problem first detected in the fall of 2021. As a result, between routine maintenance and repair due to corrosion, many reactors are shut down: assets some reactors are currently shown in red and those that are off are gray.
Will France survive the winter? To outline an answer to this question, it is not only necessary to take an interest in the energy supply. The nerve of the war is also and above all the energy consumption of the French.
The graph below shows the electricity consumption in France in 2022, it is the red curve on the graph. It is compared with the average, as well as the maximum and minimum of the 2017-2021 period, and updated daily.
How does France compare with its European neighbors? To find out, we have compiled in the graph below the consumption of France and that of the members of the European Union. The average for the whole EU (excluding Cyprus and Malta) is represented by the light red curve.
Unsurprisingly, gas consumption is closely tied to the season. It falls from spring, collapses in summer and rises again from September. The red curve in the graph indicates our current consumption, compared to the average for the period 2017-2022 (in black in the graph).
All charts in this dashboard are automatically generated using data provided by suppliers or the state. They are updated daily with data from the day before.